Different Brain disorders and the associated symptoms

The nervous system is undoubtedly the most complicated and mystifying system of the human body. Brain, spinal cord, 43 pairs of nerves, and 100 billion neurons make up your central nervous system. The system collectively helps in communication with other systems like endocrine, digestive, lymphatic, immune, and muscular systems. Brain functions as the central control system of the entire system and damage to the brains could mean severe sensory and muscular impairments in the body. It can even affect your memory and personality.

Brain disorders and symptoms

The disabilities or conditions that affect your brains are termed as brain disorders. The primary reasons that attribute to brain disorders are illness, injuries, and genetic causes. However, this is only a broad categorization of disorders that vary significantly based on the severity and symptoms. Learn about these categories briefly in the subsequent sections.

Traumatic brain injuries

Any traumatic head injury due to accidents, falls, sports injuries or physical assaults can cause severe damage to brain tissues, nerves, or neurons. Injuries are also rampant among infants who are subjected to violent shakings. These can result in the brain losing its ability to communicate with the rest of the body. Though in most cases, the skull protects your brain from injuries, there are chances of spine injuries causing damage to the brain. Following are the various types of brain injuries.

  • Hematoma: Clotting of blood inside the brain can build up pressure inside the brain.
  • Contusions: A type of hematoma, that involves bruising of brain tissues
  • Blood clots: Clots forming in carotid arteries and heart chambers can travel to the brain, which is the primary cause of strokes.
  • Cerebral oedema: Swelling inside the skull due to collection of fluids
  • Concussions: Being unconscious or having an altered mental state.

Symptoms

Vomiting, nausea, numbness, difficulty in speech, memory loss, paralysis, concentration problems, and bleeding from ears are some of the significant symptoms associated with brain injuries. These symptoms may later lead to irregular breathing, pupil dilation, high blood pressure, and a lower heart rate.

Treatment

Depending on the type of brain injuries, patients undergo various treatments. According to the best neurosurgeon in chennai, nearly half of people require brain surgeries to repair or remove damaged tissues. Others may not need treatments other than pain medicines. Psychiatric treatments, physiotherapy, and speech therapies are essential for the rehabilitation of patients with brain injuries.

Brain Tumors

Primary Brain Tumors are the tumours formed in the brain, whereas cancer that spreads to the brain from other parts of the brain are secondary or metastatic brain tumours. The brain tumours are classified in grades of 1, 2, 3, or 4, where the highest degree indicates the severity of the disease.

Symptoms

Headaches, numbness, seizures, vomiting, nausea, and changes in behaviour, movement, and sensory damages are significant symptoms of brain tumour. It can occur in anyone irrespective of age.

Treatment

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgeries are the primary treatment methods that, of course, depend upon the age and overall health of the patients.

Neurodegenerative diseases

Most neurodegenerative diseases, such as Tay-Sachs are genetic and show symptoms at an early age. These diseases deteriorate the brain and nerves gradually over time, and there is no definite cure for these diseases. But treatments are available to reduce the severity of symptoms. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s are some of the diseases of this category

Symptoms

Memory loss, mood changes, anxiety, agitation, forgetfulness, loss of inhibition and apathy are some of the significant symptoms.

Diagnosis of brain disorders is mostly based on the symptoms and medical history, according to the best brain surgeon in Chennai. Hence, if you notice any symptoms consult your primary physician immediately.

Read More : 7 Misconceptions of Osteoporosis

7 Misconceptions of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis – What is it, and why does it happen?

Osteoporosis is a condition in which a person’s bones become weak and porous. It can happen when the body makes too little bone, loses too much bone or in some cases even both. This causes the bones to become extremely brittle and may break when a person falls, or in drastic cases, from minor bumps and even sneezing. It affects millions of people each year, especially those over 50. Leading bone-health expert Dr Deborah Sellmeyer helps us dispel some of the myths about osteoporosis. 

Know The Myths, Stay Informed

Myth 1: It occurs naturally as a part of aging 

Although osteoporosis and the resulting injuries that come with it are likely to occur the older you get, they are, however, not inevitable. Dr Sellmeyer states there are plenty of things one can do to prevent these fractures. The three most most important ones being:

  • Exercising regularly
  • Getting sufficient vitamin D
  • Getting enough calcium

Myth 2: Women are the only ones who get it 

While it is certainly true that more women develop osteoporosis than men, men can still be affected by it. It was noted that about 20 percent of men over the age of 50 suffered from bone fractures related to osteoporosis. Dr Sellmeyer also states that younger men are more likely to experience fractured bones than women.

Myth 3: Worry only when you’re old 

According to the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center, 90 percent of bone mass is acquired by the age of 20 in boys and 18 in girls. It is never too early for a person to build bone density and develop the best possible bones for life. You can prevent issues late in life by developing good nutritional habits early and thinking about bone health when you’re young.

Take Note Of The Myths Associated With Bones

Myth 4: The only danger is broken bones 

Osteoporosis is a very serious condition and can sometimes be fatal. It can lead to hip fractures and it has been reported that around 25 percent of people die within 6 to 12 months of the surgery. Hip replacement surgeries lead to problems like:

  • Pneumonia
  • Arrhythmias
  • Heart attacks
  • Anesthesia complications
  • Infections in older adults 

Myth 5: Bones only break from falls 

Most people fracture themselves during a fall. Weak bones, however, simply break. People with osteoporosis have spontaneous fractures. They can be caused from leaning over, bending, or in some cases by even just walking.

Myth 6: You can feel your bones getting weaker 

Unfortunately, that isn’t true. You can’t feel or see oncoming osteoporosis. It is a silent disease. You don’t feel your bones get weaker, and only know when you break a bone. The only way to know is by getting a bone density test.

Myth 7: Porous bones are unable to regain strength 

Although someone with osteoporosis is never going to go back to having a normal bone density range, it is possible to rebuild bone. Specific medication can help increase bone density by a small percentage over 3 to 4 years.

Read More : Some common neurological disorders that come with age.

Some common neurological disorders that come with age.

Neurological Disorders- A problem that arises as you grow old

Growing old is a part of life. As we age, we notice changes in our skin, hair and joints. Apart from these visible changes, our central nervous system and brain also experience signs of aging. This is one of the primary reasons people suffer from neurological problems after the age of 65.

If you feel uncertain and think you’re suffering from a neurological issue, get yourself assessed by a neurologist. They will get to know more about you and your condition by asking a series of questions, and in some cases undergo neurological testing. 

Know the most common neurological disorders

  • Alzheimer’s disease: It’s a form of dementia that is progressive in nature. It destroys brain cells and ultimately affects a person’s most basic physical and mental functions.
  • Neuropathy: A nerve disorder often affecting the hands and feet causing symptoms such as weakness and numbness. They might be a result of systemic diseases like diabetes, as well as certain medications.
  • Parkinson’s disease: It is a progressive movement disorder that is chronic in nature. It causes the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain. Symptoms can be managed by medication and surgery.
  • Myopathy: It is a disorder of the muscles that is most severe in the upper arms and thighs. Myopathy is characterized by muscle weakness.
  • Stroke: This is a dangerous and life threatening event. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts or when the blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted. Warning signs include speech difficulty, arm weakness and face drooping.
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: This is a progresiive disease that causes the deterioration of the body’s muscle function by affecting the motor neurons. Also called Lou Gehrig’s disease, there is no known cure for ALS.
  • Myasthenia Gravis: It is a chronic autoimmune disorder that blocks the transmission of signals from the nerves to the muscles causing them to become immobile. A key indicator is when a person experiences muscle weakness during periods of activity which then improves with rest.
  • Muscular Dystrophy: These are a group of progressive muscle disorders that are generally genetically inherited. The muscles closest to the trunk of the body begin to weaken first, followed by severe muscle deterioration and contraction.

Can these neurological disorders be prevented?

There are a few steps that can be taken to minimize chances of a neurological disorder. Controlling high risk factors like, smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, and cholesterol are essential. A good exercise regimen is crucial. Fortunately, most disorders of the nervous system and brain can be successfully treated. The treatments that doctors use are also constantly improving.

Read More : Spinal Cord Injury Treatment, Interview By Dr G Balamurali In Newsglitz